Biocatalytic pulp fibers were prepared using surface functionalization of bleached kraft pulp with amino groups (F) and further immobilization of a cross-linked glucose oxidase (G*) from Aspergillus niger. The cross-linked enzymes (G*) were characterized using X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic scanning calorimetry, and dynamic light scattering. According to standard assays, the G* content on the resulting fibers (FG*) was of 11 mg/g of fiber, and enzyme activity was of 215 U/g. The results from confocal- and stimulated emission depletion microscopy techniques demonstrated that glucose oxidase do not penetrate the interlayers of fibers. The benefit of pulp fiber functionalization was evident in the present case, as the introduction of amino groups allowed the immobilization of larger amount of enzymes and rendered more efficient systems. Using the approach described on this paper, several advanced materials from wood pulp fibers and new bioprocesses might be developed by selecting the correct enzyme for the target applications.
Iris Beatriz Vega Erramuspe, Elnaz Fazeli, Tuomas Näreoja, Jani Trygg, Pekka Hänninen, Thomas Heinze, and Pedro Fardim Biomacromolecules, 2016, 17 (10), pp 3188–3197 DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.6b00865